To assess the immunization status of pediatric renal transplant patients followed at a single center in Brazil, vaccination charts of all patients aged between one and 18 yr were analyzed both pre- and post-transplantation. Appropriate immunization was defined according to the National Immunization Program (routine vaccines) – for all Brazilian children – and the Special Immunobiological Agents Program that also includes special vaccines for immunodeficient or other high-risk children. A total of 46 patients was evaluated (mean age 13.7 yr; range 4–17 yr). Vaccination charts were found to be up to date in only two patients (4.3%) pretransplant and in two (4.3%) post-transplant. Although 36 patients (62.2%) in the pretransplant phase and 24 (52.1%) in the post-transplant phase had been vaccinated according to the National Immunization Program, they had not received the special vaccines indicated for their immunocompromised condition. Therefore, despite being followed at a referral center, almost all patients presented an incomplete immunization status pre- and post-transplant. This probably reflects missed opportunities and medical/parental apprehension related to vaccination of patients with chronic renal insufficiency, dialysis or kidney transplantation. Efforts should be made to ensure adequate vaccination in children with kidney diseases, especially before kidney transplantation.