Hyperlipidemia is common in patients after LTX. Although immunosuppressive protocols have changed, there are only few data after pediatric LTX. Aim of our study was to evaluate short-and long-time effects of LTX on serum cholesterol and triglycerides in children with different immunosuppressive regimen. We retrospectively analyzed 24 children (seven boys) who underwent LTX since 1987 and were followed for at least one yr at the Medical University of Vienna. Serum lipids, liver function and records of immunosuppressive therapy were evaluated at first referral, shortly before and three, six, nine and 12 months after LTX, and at last visit (mean 6.6 yr after LTX). At first referral, serum lipids were significantly related to underlying disease and age. Following LTX, prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was 25% and of hypertriglyceridemia 90% after the first year. Long-term follow-up showed an overall decrease of serum lipids. Significant decreases in serum triglycerides were directly related to discontinuation of steroids. There was no effect of calcineurin inhibitiors. Our study confirms the high prevalence of hyperlipidemia before and after pediatric LTX and suggests a major role of steroid-withdrawal for the control of post-transplant hypertriglyceridemia.