Chronic immune-mediated axonal polyneuropathy following umbilical cord blood transplant for childhood-onset cerebral adrenoleukodystrophy

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Peripheral polyneuropathy is an unusual complication after organ transplantation and HSCT. The present study describes the case of an eight-yr-old boy diagnosed with ALD who underwent HLA-matched UCBT under a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen and developed progressive walking difficulty and hand clumsiness 11 months after transplantation. These symptoms were associated with cGVHD, identified as immune-mediated axonopathy by electrophysiological examination and sural nerve biopsy. Peripheral polyneuropathy should be kept in mind as a complication of GVHD.

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