BK virus nephropathy in a pediatric heart transplant recipient with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder: A case report and review of literature

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BKV is known to cause allograft failure in kidney transplant recipients. It has been recently recognized to cause native kidney nephropathy in non-kidney transplant recipients. This is a case report BKVN in a 15-yr-old HTx recipient who had PTLD and a review of pediatric cases in the literature. The patient was diagnosed with BKVN +189 months after transplantation and died thirty days after diagnosis of BKVN. We identified five other cases of BKVN in pediatric non-kidney solid organ transplantation, of which all were HTx recipients. Overall, outcome was poor and BKV clearance was not achieved with reduction of immunosuppression and with current therapies. We strongly recommend that pediatric HTx recipients be tested for BKV infection if there is evidence of kidney dysfunction. We also recommend that they have an annual screening for BKV viruria and viremia with the assessment of kidney function.

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