LT has contributed to an elevation in cure rates for patients with unresectable HB; however, patients with recurrent HB after LT have poor prognosis. To analyze the prognostic and therapeutic factors that influence the clinical outcome of patients with HB receiving LT, we retrospectively analyzed 24 patients with HB who underwent LT between 1997 and 2015. The 5-year OS rate of all patients was 69.6±9.7%. The 5-year OS rate of 11 patients receiving salvage LT for recurrent tumor after a primary resection was comparable to that of 13 patients receiving primary LT. Among 12 evaluable patients receiving primary LT, six of 10 patients with a decline of serum AFP >95% at LT are currently alive and in remission, whereas two patients with a decline of AFP ≤95% experienced post-LT relapse. Among 9 evaluable patients receiving salvage LT, all three patients with any decline of AFP at LT are currently alive in remission, and three of six patients with no response to pre-LT salvage chemotherapy are also alive and in remission. Response to chemotherapy may be a reliable marker for prediction of post-LT relapse, even for patients receiving salvage LT.