Pharmacogenomics of adverse drug reactions: practical applications and perspectives

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Serious adverse drug reactions represent the sixth major cause of death in the USA, are the main reason for postmarketing drug withdrawal and represent billions of US dollars in costs every year in all developed countries. Some of these serious adverse drug reactions might be avoided by systematically screening for pharmacogenomic risk factors. During the last few years, regulatory agencies introduced pharmacogenomics labels for several drugs, but although a priori genetic testing remains advised or recommended, it is seldom compulsory due to poor evidence-based medicine knowledge. Recently published pharmacogenomic randomized, controlled and ongoing trials will progressively make genotyping tests, such as those for HLA-B*5701 (abacavir), TPMT (6-mercaptopurine), CYP2C9 plus VKORC1 (warfarin) and CYP3A5 (tacrolimus), mandatory. Parallel development of pharmacogenomic bed tests will certainly establish genetically-based prescriptions in routine medical practice.

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