Atherosclerosis is a pathological phenomenon in which the walls of large arteries thicken and lose elasticity as a result of the growth of atheromatous lesions. It is a complex, multifactorial disease that involves several cell types and various pathobiological processes. Its genetic basis has not yet been deciphered, but it is related to complex multigene patterns influenced by environmental interactions. In this review, we focus specifically on the application of microarrays to atherosclerosis research using monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages, as these are key cells in all phases of atherosclerosis, from the formation of foam cells to the destabilization and rupture of the atherosclerotic plaque. These studies have provided relevant information on genes involved in atherosclerosis development, contributing to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie this complex disease.