To determine the extent of hospital-based clinical pharmacy services in 1995, we surveyed 1109 United States acute care, general, medical-surgical, and pediatric hospitals with 50 or more licensed beds. Fifteen clinical pharmacy services were assessed to determine pharmacists' specific patient care responsibilities. The percentage of hospitals offering services grew between 1992 and 1995: pharmacokinetic consultations (16% increase), drug therapy protocol management (15%), drug therapy monitoring (8%), drug counseling (13%), and parenteral-enteral nutrition team (6%). All other services increased 0-5%. Pharmacists conducted clinical research in 14% of hospitals, averaging 6.3 ± 22.1 protocols/department annually; total budget $96,219 ± $262,026. Patient-focused care predominated in 20% of hospitals, although most pharmacists reported to directors of pharmacy through traditional pharmacy department channels. Clinical pharmacy services continue to expand, with pharmacists providing higher-level direct patient care activities related to drug therapy management and monitoring.