We conducted a retrospective analysis to evaluate the relationship between anxiolytic or hypnotic therapy and maintenance of therapy with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Subjects were 654 patients who received anxiolytics or hypnotics early in SSRI therapy (study group ) and 15,172 patients who did not (controls). Maintenance of SSRI therapy was evaluated during the 6 months after start of therapy and included days of initial SSRI therapy and rates of discontinuation, defined as a break of more than 30 days. Rates of discontinuation in study and control groups (84% and 77%, p=0.001) and average days of initial SSRI therapy (77 and 94 days, p<0.0001) were statistically different. Thus patients receiving anxiolytic or hypnotics in the first 60 days of therapy were less likely to continue initial SSRI therapy.