To determine whether granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) prophylaxis after consolidation with high- or intermediate-dose cytarabine (H/IDAC) for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) reduces the frequency of neutropenia-associated complications.Design.
Retrospective medical record review.Setting.
Academic medical center.Patients.
Seventy-eight patients aged 18 years or older in whom H/IDAC consolidation chemotherapy was initiated for consolidation of AML between November 2004 and November 2010.Measurements and Main Results.
Patient demographic data, information on the hospitalization for consolidation, data on G-CSF use after H/IDAC chemotherapy, and details on any readmissions were collected. Patients were deemed to have received G-CSF prophylaxis if there was documentation of the intent for use of either filgrastim or pegfilgrastim. Outcome data also were collected, including dates of relapse or second induction treatment course, and death or last follow-up visit. We compared data based on patient receipt of G-CSF (G-CSF vs no G-CSF) after each chemotherapy cycle. We assessed differences in the duration of hospitalization, fever, intravenous antibiotic use, and neutropenia, as well as rate of documented infections, time to disease recurrence, and overall survival. Compared with no G-CSF, use of G-CSF after cycle 1 of H/IDAC significantly reduced the rate of hospitalization for febrile neutropenia (p=0.039); however, no significant differences were noted for subsequent cycles. No significant differences were seen in duration of hospitalization, rate of documented infections, or time to treatment failure between groups. Overall survival was longer for patients who received G-CSF during their first cycle (p=0.018) and for those who received G-CSF during any of their cycles (p=0.04).Conclusion.
Use of G-CSF prophylaxis after cycle 1 of H/IDAC consolidation for AML appears to reduce the frequency of hospitalization for febrile neutropenia and to increase overall survival compared with no G-CSF use. Prospective, controlled studies are needed to support our findings.Conclusion.