To describe and evaluate the extent and diversity of nationwide data from clinical pharmacists' interventions (PIs) in German hospitals.Design
Retrospective analysis.Data Source
The ADKA-DokuPIK German database, a national anonymous self-reported Internet-based documentation system for routine PIs as well as for medication errors reported by German hospital pharmacists.Measurements and Main Results
Data sets from ADKA-DokuPIK entered between January 2009 and December 2012 were analyzed descriptively. A total of 27,610 PIs were entered, mainly by ward-based clinical pharmacists (82.5%). Most of the PIs were performed on surgical wards (37.8%), followed by anesthesiology/intensive care unit/intermediate care unit and internal medicine. The most prevalent therapeutic subgroup that was the trigger for the PIs was antibacterials for systemic use (13.9%), followed by antithrombotic agents, analgesics, drugs for acid-related disorders, and agents acting on the renin-angiotensin system. About a quarter of interventions (23.4%) were performed due to inappropriate use of drugs, followed by use of a wrong dose or administration interval (22.1%), resulting in the most frequently taken actions of change of dose, change of drug, and drug stopped/paused (withheld). Altogether, the implementation rate of the PIs was 85.5%. Underlying medication errors were predominantly classified as “error, no harm” according to the National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention.Conclusion
For the first time in a European country, our findings show the scope of clinical pharmacist involvement in patient care in daily clinical practice and demonstrate the usefulness and importance of their proactive interventions in the prevention of hazards and risks for hospital inpatients.