Evaluation of the Effect of A Structured Program to Guide Residents’ Experience in Research (ASPIRE) on Pharmacy Residents’ Knowledge, Confidence, and Attitude toward Research

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To evaluate the effect of A Structured Program to guide Resident Experience in Research (ASPIRE) on pharmacy residents’ knowledge, confidence, and attitude toward research.


Nonrandomized controlled study using data from a validated questionnaire administered through an online survey.


Of 60 pharmacy residents (residency year 2013–2014) who completed the baseline assessment, the 41 residents who also completed the follow-up assessment were included in the final analysis; of those, 26 Colorado pharmacy postgraduate year 1 (PGY1) and year 2 (PGY2) residents were enrolled in ASPIRE between July 2013 and June 2014 (intervention group) and 16 PGY1 and PGY2 pharmacy residents outside of Colorado did not participate in ASPIRE (control group).


Both the intervention and control groups completed a pre- and post-assessment at the beginning (July 2013 [baseline]) and end (May/June 2014 [follow-up]), respectively, of their residency year that measured knowledge (with a tool measuring biostatistics and research methodology knowledge), confidence, and attitude toward research. Research knowledge scores improved similarly from baseline to follow-up in the intervention and control groups: 11.8% and 11.3%, respectively (adjusted p=0.8). Research confidence improved significantly more in the intervention group, with a 48% increase in confidence score from before to after residency completion, compared with a 15% increase in the control group (adjusted p=0.002). Residents in both the intervention and control groups expressed positive attitudes toward pharmacist-conducted research, with 100% and 87% of intervention and control residents, respectively (adjusted p=0.970), agreeing that pharmacist-conducted research is essential to driving pharmacy practice and expanding the roles of pharmacists.


ASPIRE was not associated with greater research methodology knowledge but did significantly increase confidence in performing research.

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