Development and implementation of patient information leaflets in diabetes mellitus

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This prospective study aimed to develop and implement a patient information leaflet (PIL) on diabetes mellitus, and to assess the effectiveness of the PIL after implementation.


A questionnaire on diabetes mellitus was developed as a tool to assess knowledge among diabetes patients. Data were collected from patients; accordingly the PIL was implemented by using formulae such as the Flesch Reading Ease (FRE) and Flesch–Kincaid Grade-Level (FK-GL) scores. Layout and design of the leaflet were done according to the Baker Able Leaflet Design (BALD) method.

Key findings

Of the 260 patients approached, 20 were excluded from the study due to a lack of response. We used questionnaire scores to reveal knowledge on diabetes mellitus. Before education (that is, reading the PIL), 14.2% (n = 34) had a score of 0–4 and 20.8% (n = 50) had a score of 13–16. After education, just 1.6% (n = 4) had a score in the range of 0–4 and 39.6% (n = 95) had achieved a score of 13–16.


Education with the PIL significantly improved patients’ knowledge regarding diabetes mellitus. It may be concluded that the disease-specific knowledge imparted through PILs is necessary to heighten patients’ self-confidence in management of diabetes mellitus and to improve self management.

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