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Circulating levels of androgens determine the sexual differentiation of the brain and spinal cord at a critical period. Although estradiol, which is converted from testosterone by aromatase action, can explain the cytological basis for the sexual dimorphism, androgen has its own regulatory mechanism to promote male-specific behavior through receptors. The central nervous system (CNS) employs a sex-specific neuronal network involving peptides and steroids for the expression of the sexual phenotype. Elucidation of the molecular mechanism along with the neuroanatomical background should guide the development of novel pharmacotherapeutics for sexual behavior dysfunction.