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This review brings together information on the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Published manuscripts were identified from Medline. The articles were then screened for relevance prior to inclusion in the review.Up to 40% of people in Western countries are estimated to regularly experience heartburn, the most characteristic symptom of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Treatment options available for GERD range from over-the-counter (OTC) antacids to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and anti-reflux surgery. Many patients self-medicate with OTC medications such as antacids and low-dose histamine H2-receptor antagonists (H2RA) to relieve episodic or food-related symptoms of GERD, and may not seek medical advice unless symptoms persist or worsen. However, GERD is a chronic disease that frequently affects health-related quality of life and, if not properly managed, the complications of GERD may include erosive oesophagitis (EO), Barrett's oesophagus and adenocarcinoma.Adequate control of acid secretion is key to the successful treatment of the condition. OTC medications provide effective symptom relief to about one quarter of patients suffering from GERD. H2RAs can also provide effective symptomatic relief, particularly in patients with milder GERD, but become less-effective over time. PPIs are the agents of choice for the suppression of gastric acid production and have become the mainstay of therapy for acid-related diseases. PPIs produce significantly faster and more complete symptomatic relief, significantly faster and more complete healing of erosive GERD compared with H2RAs and are also significantly more effective at preventing relapse of EO.There are a number of existing guidelines for the treatment of GERD. Recommendation for initial therapy consist of general measures, such as lifestyle advice in combination with antacids and/or alginates. When general measures fail, the next step is empirical therapy. Two options exist for the expirical treatment of GERD, so-called “step-up” or “step-down” therapy. There are no clear data to support either treatment strategy as a universal approach to all patients; consequently, physicians must always choose the course best suited to the individual patient.