The CYP3A5*1 allele has been linked to high expression of CYP3A5 and metabolism of cyclosporine. We evaluated the role of CYP3A5*1 for long-term survival in renal transplant patients in a cohort of 399 patients who underwent cadaveric or living donor kidney allograft transplantation. All patients were treated with a similar cyclosporine-based immunosuppressive maintenance therapy protocol. The mean duration of follow-up was 8.6 ± 3.7 years. In univariate survival analysis, the presence of the CYP3A5*1 allele in recipients significantly increased patient survival P = 0.028 (log-rank), resulting in a hazard ratio (HR) of 0.52 (95% CI = 0.29-0.94). When the presence of the CYP3A5*1 allele was included in multivariate Cox regression analyses accounting for major risk factors for patient death, CYP3A5*1 still conferred a protective effect. Further, haplotype analysis at the CYP3A5 locus confirmed that CYP3A5*1 might indeed be responsible for this survival benefit.