Matrix metalloproteinase-9 polymorphisms affect plasma MMP-9 levels and antihypertensive therapy responsiveness in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy

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Abstract

Abnormal matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 levels may have a role in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. We examined whether MMP-9 genetic polymorphisms (g.−1562C>T and g.−90(CA)13-25) modify plasma MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 levels and the responses to antihypertensive therapy in 214 patients with preeclampsia (PE), 185 patients with gestational hypertension (GH) and a control group of 214 healthy pregnant (HP). Alleles for the g.−90(CA)13-25 polymorphism were grouped L (low) (<21 CA repeats) or H (high) (≥21 CA repeats). Plasma MMP-9 and TIMP-1 concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma MMP-9 concentrations were not affected by genotypes or haplotypes in HP and PE groups, except for the g.−90(CA)13-25 polymorphism: GH patients with the LH genotype for this polymorphism have higher MMP-9 levels than those with other genotypes. The T allele for the g.−1562C>T polymorphism and the H4 haplotype (combining T and H alleles) are associated with GH and lack of responsiveness to antihypertensive therapy in GH. The H2 haplotype (combining C and H alleles) was associated with lack of responsiveness to antihypertensive therapy in PE, but not in GH. In conclusion, our results show that MMP-9 genetic variants are associated with GH and suggest that MMP-9 haplotypes affect the responsiveness to antihypertensive therapy in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.

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