A prospective randomized evaluation of a pharmacogenomic approach to antiplatelet therapy among patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: the RAPID STEMI study

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Treatment of carriers of the CYP2C19*2 allele and ABCB1 TT genotype with clopidogrel is associated with increased ischemic complications after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We sought to evaluate a pharmacogenomic strategy among patients undergoing PCI for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), by performing a randomized trial, enrolling 102 patients. Point-of-care genetic testing for CYP2C19*2, ABCB1 TT and CYP2C19*17 was performed with carriers of either the CYP2C19*2 allele or ABCB1 TT genotype randomly assigned to a strategy of prasugrel 10 mg daily or an augmented dosing strategy of clopidogrel (150 mg daily for 6 days then 75 mg daily). The primary end point was the proportion of at-risk carriers exhibiting high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HPR), a marker associated with increased adverse cardiovascular events, after 1 month. Fifty-nine subjects (57.8%) were identified as carriers of at least one at-risk variant. Treatment with prasugrel significantly reduced HPR compared with clopidogrel by P2Y12 reaction unit (PRU) thresholds of > 234 (0 vs 24.1%, P = 0.0046) and PRU>208 (3.3 vs 34.5%, P = 0.0025). The sensitivity of point-of-care testing was 100% (95% CI 88.0-100), 100% (86.3-100) and 96.9% (82.0-99.8) and specificity was 97.0% (88.5-99.5), 97.1% (89.0-99.5) and 98.5% (90.9-99.9) for identifying CYP2C19*2, ABCB1 TT and CYP2C19*17, respectively. Logistic regression confirmed carriers as a strong predictor of HPR (OR = 6.58, 95% CI 1.24-34.92; P = 0.03). We confirmed that concurrent identification of three separate genetic variants in patients with STEMI receiving PCI is feasible at the bedside. Among carriers of at-risk genotypes, treatment with prasugrel was superior to an augmented dosing strategy of clopidogrel in reducing HPR.

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