A non-synonymous polymorphism in galectin-3 lectin domain is associated with allergic reactions to beta-lactam antibiotics

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Genetic predictors of beta-lactam (BL) allergy are mostly related to Immunoglobulin E (IgE) synthesis and atopy. Despite this context, little attention has been devoted to genes of IgE/FcεRI pathway, such as galectin-3, a β-galactoside-binding lectin, which binds to IgE. We evaluated the association of LGALS3 polymorphisms with BL allergy in 395 Spanish and 198 Italian cases, compared with 310- and 339-matched controls, respectively. The rs11125 predicted BL allergy with an odds ratio of 4.0 in Spanish population (P<0.0001). This association was replicated with an odds ratio of 5.1 in Italian population (P<0.0001); rs11125 predicted also increased serum level of total IgE in Spanish controls. These data are consistent with the predicted deleterious influence of Gln>His substitution produced by rs11125 on galactose-binding activity of galectin-3. In conclusion, LGALS3 is the strongest genetic predictor of BL allergy reported so far. This association reflects the influence of genes of IgE/FcεRI pathway in this pathology.

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