NeuroAiD, a traditional Chinese medicine widely used to treat stroke patients in China, was recently demonstrated in rodent models and in clinical trials to possess neuroregenerative and neuroprotective properties. In order to understand the mechanisms employed by NeuroAiD to bring about its neuroproliferative and neuroprotective effects, we investigated the impact of MLC901, a reformulated version of MLC601, on human neural progenitors undergoing neural differentiation at the molecular level by performing three independent microarray experiments. Functional annotations of the genes regulated by MLC901 that were associated with neurogenesis were found to be enriched. We also identified potential targets (FGF19, GALR2, MMP10, FGF3 and TDO2) of MLC901 that could promote neurogenesis and neuroprotection in the human brain. This work highlighted some interesting targets and offered some insights into the possible mechanism of action of MLC901. The discovery could also provide a platform to the development of future therapeutic targets.