Asparaginase, which depletes asparagine and glutamine, activates amino-acid stress response. Oxidative stress mediated by excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) causes enhanced mitochondrial permeabilization and subsequent cell apoptosis and is considered as a plausible mechanism for drug-induced hepatotoxicity, a common toxicity of asparaginase in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Studies investigating the pharmacogenetics of asparaginase in ALL are limited and focused on asparaginase-induced allergic reaction common in pediatric patients. Here, we sought to determine a potential association between the variant rs4880 in SOD2 gene, a key mitochondrial enzyme that protects cells against ROS, and hepatotoxicity during asparaginase-based therapy in 224 patients enrolled on CALGB-10102, a treatment trial for adults with ALL. We report that the CC genotype of rs4880 is associated with increased hepatotoxicity following asparaginase-based treatment. Thus, rs4880 likely contributes to asparaginase-induced hepatotoxicity, and functional studies investigating this single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) are needed to develop therapeutic approaches that mitigate this toxicity.