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To evaluate the predictive value of genes involved in resistance to platinum-taxane chemotherapy in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). Microdissected formalin-fixed tumoral samples from 187 EOC patients' primary tumors (90 and 97 samples from matched patients in the experimental and validation sets, respectively) were analyzed. All specimens were analyzed for ATP7b, BRCA1, BRCA2, PARP1, UIMC1(RAP80), HOXA9, DAXX, TXN (TRX1), THBS1 (TSP1) and PRR13 (TXR1) mRNA expression by quantitative real-time PCR. Most of the patients (172 out of 187) received front-line carboplatin-paclitaxel regimen. Expression levels were correlated with overall (OS) and progression-free (PFS) survival by multivariate analysis. Patients with high TXN and THBS1 expression presented longer PFS (P = 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively) and OS (P = 0.024 and P < 0.001, respectively). High TXR1 expression was associated with decreased PFS (P < 0.001) and OS (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that high PRR13/low THBS1 expression was an independent factor for decreased PFS (hazards ratio: 1.94; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.48-2.92; P = 0.008) and OS (hazard ratio: 3.89; 95% CI: 2.16-6.87; P < 0.001), whereas low TXN expression was correlated with decreased PFS (hazard ratio: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.05-2.84; P = 0.043) and OS (hazard ratio: 2.38; 95% CI: 1.78-2.77; P = 0.009). These findings indicate that PRR13/THBS1 and TXN expression could be used for the prediction of resistance to treatment of EOC patients and, therefore, merit to be further evaluated.