Sparfloxacin is a widely prescribed drug for various infections. In the present study, sparfloxacin, at two doses, 25 and 50 mg kg−1 was screened on seven neurological and neurobehavioural parameters in mice. In addition, a chronic study was performed to measure the grip strength of the animal to simulate tendon damage and corresponding hydroxyproline levels were determined in mice urine. Increasing current electroshock test (ICES), pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures, forced swim test (FST), passive avoidance response (PAR), spontaneous alternation behaviour (SAB) and elevated plus maze (EPM) were used for studying the acute effects of sparfloxacin while ICES, grip strength test (GST) and urinary hydroxyproline estimations were done for studying its chronic effects. The results indicate a proconvulsive potential of sparfloxacin on the ICES test (when administered for 21 days) and on PTZ when administered for 4 days. Further sparfloxacin (50 mg kg−1 × 4 days) exhibited anxiety like effects on EPM while mood and memory remained unaffected. Sparfloxacin 50 mg kg−1 reduced the grip strength of mice after 2 weeks while both 25 and 50 mg kg−1 reduced the same after 3 weeks. On urinary hydroxyproline, sparfloxacin 25 mg kg−1 significantly increased the levels after 3 weeks of treatment. At 50 mg kg−1, an elevation was evident from the first week onwards. In conclusion, sparfloxacin produced proconvulsant and anxiogenic effects in mice and was devoid of effects on mood and memory. On chronic treatment, it reduced grip strength and caused an elevation in urinary hydroxyproline levels.