Limitation of adipose tissue enlargement in rats chronically treated with semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase and monoamine oxidase inhibitors

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Inhibition of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidases (SSAO) and monoamine oxidases (MAO) reduces fat deposition in obese rodents: chronic administration of the SSAO-inhibitor semicarbazide (S) in combination with pargyline (MAO-inhibitor) has been shown to reduce body weight gain in obese Zucker rats, while (E)-2-(4-fluorophenethyl)-3-fluoroallylamine, an SSAO- and MAO-B inhibitor, has been reported to limit weight gain in obese and diabetic mice. Our aim was to state whether such weight gain limitation could occur in non-obese, non-diabetic rats and to extend these observations to other amine oxidase inhibitors. Prolonged treatment of non-obese rats with a high dose of S (900 μmol kg−1 day−1) reduced body weight gain and limited white adipose tissue enlargement. When chronically administered at a threefold lower dose, S also inhibited SSAO activity but not fat depot enlargement, suggesting that effects other than SSAO inhibition were involved in adipose tissue growth retardation. However, combined treatment of this lower dose of S with pargyline inhibited SSAO, MAO, energy intake, weight gain and fat deposition. Adipocytes from treated rats exhibited unchanged insulin responsiveness but impaired antilipolytic responses to amine oxidase substrates. Phenelzine clearly inhibited both MAO and SSAO when tested on adipocytes. Obese rats receiving phenelzine i.p. at 17 μmol kg−1 day−1 for 3 weeks, exhibited blunted MAO and SSAO activities in any tested tissue, diminished body weight gain and reduced intra-abdominal adipose tissue. Their adipocytes were less responsive to lipogenesis activation by tyramine or benzylamine. These observations suggest that SSAO inhibition is not sufficient to impair fat deposition. However, combined MAO and SSAO inhibition limits adiposity in non-obese as well as in obese rats.

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