Novel targets for paclitaxel nano formulations: Hopes and hypes in triple negative breast cancer

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Triple negative breast cancer is defined as one of the utmost prevailing breast cancers worldwide, possessing an inadequate prognosis and treatment option limited to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, creating a challenge for researchers as far as developing a specific targeted therapy is concerned. The past research era has shown several promising outcomes for TNBC such as nano-formulations of the chemotherapeutic agents already used for the management of the malignant tumor. Taking a glance at paclitaxel nano formulations, it has been proven beneficial in several researches in the past decade; nevertheless its solubility is often a challenge to scientists in achieving success. We have henceforth discussed the basic heterogeneity of triple negative breast cancer along with the current management options as well as a brief outlook on pros and cons of paclitaxel, known as the most widely used chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of the disease. We further analyzed the need of nanotechnology pertaining to the problems encountered with the current paclitaxel formulations available discussing the strategic progress in various nano-formulations till date taking into account the basic research strategies required in terms of solubility, permeability, physicochemical properties, active and passive targeting. A thorough review in recent advances in active targeting for TNBC was carried out whereby the various ligands which are at present finding its way into TNBC research such as hyaluronic acid, folic acid, transferrin, etc. were discussed. These ligands have specific receptor affinity to TNBC tumor cells hence can be beneficial for novel drug targeting approaches. Conversely, there are currently several novel strategies in the research pipeline whose targeting ligands have not yet been studied. Therefore, we reviewed upon the numerous novel receptor targets along with the respective nano-formulation aspects which have not yet been fully researched upon and could be exemplified as outstanding target strategies for TNBC which is currently an urgent requirement.

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