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Melanoma originated from melanocytes is the most aggressive type of skin cancer. Despite considerable progresses in clinical treatment with the discovery of BRAF or MEK inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, the durability of response to treatment is often limited to the development of acquired resistance and systemic toxicity. The limited success of conventional treatment highlights the importance of understanding the role of melanoma tumor microenvironment in tumor developement and drug resistance.Nanoparticles represent a promising strategy for the development of new cancer treatments able to improve the bioavailability of drugs and increase their penetration by targeting specifically tumors cells and/or tumor environment. In this review, we will discuss the main influence of tumor microenvironment in melanoma growth and treatment outcome. Furthermore, third generation loaded nanotechnologies represent an exciting tool for detection, treatment, and escape from possible mechanism of resistance mediated by tumor microenvironment, and will be highlighted in this review.