Interactions between microRNAs and long non-coding RNAs in cardiac development and repair

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Graphical abstractThe regulation of cardiac development by miRs and lncRNAs, and their interaction in pathological setting.Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are emerging players in muscle regulation. Based on their length and differences in molecular structure, ncRNAs are subdivided into several categories including small interfering RNAs, stable non-coding RNAs, microRNAs (miRs), long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), and circular RNAs. miRs and lncRNAs are able to post-transcriptionally regulate many genes and bring into play several traits simultaneously due to a myriad of different targets. Recent studies have emphasized their importance in cardiac regeneration and repair. As their altered expression affects cardiac function, miRs and lncRNAs could be potential targets for therapeutic intervention. In this context, miR- and lncRNA-based gene therapies are an interesting field for harnessing the complexity of ncRNA-based therapeutic approaches in cardiac diseases. In this review we will focus on lncRNA- and miR-driven regulations of cardiac development and repair. Finally, we will summarize miRs and lncRNAs as promising candidates for the treatment of heart diseases.

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