A glance at the therapeutic potential of irisin against diseases involving inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis: An introductory review

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Graphical abstractIrisin is a hormone-like molecule mainly released by skeletal muscles in response to exercise. Irisin induces browning of the white adipose tissue and has been shown to regulate glucose and lipid homeostasis. Keeping its energy expenditure and metabolic properties in view, numerous studies have focused on its therapeutic potential for the treatment of metabolic disorders like obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recently, the anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative properties of irisin have received a great deal of attention of the scientific society. These pathogenic processes are often associated with initiation, progression, and prognosis of numerous diseases like myocardial infarction, kidney diseases, cancer, lung injury, inflammatory bowel diseases, atherosclerosis, liver diseases, obesity and type 2 diabetes. In the current review, we present evidence regarding the anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative potential of irisin pertaining to various pathological conditions. Here, we explore multiple molecular pathways targeted by irisin therapy. Given the promising effects of irisin, many diseases with evident oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis can be targeted by irisin.

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