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Alterations of the epigenetic machinery, affecting multiple biological functions, represent a major hallmark enabling the development of tumors. Among epigenetic regulatory proteins, histone deacetylase (HDAC)6 has emerged as an interesting potential therapeutic target towards a variety of diseases including cancer. Accordingly, this isoenzyme regulates many vital cellular regulatory processes and pathways essential to physiological homeostasis, as well as tumor multistep transformation involving initiation, promotion, progression and metastasis. In this review, we will consequently discuss the critical implications of HDAC6 in distinct mechanisms relevant to physiological and cancerous conditions, as well as the anticancer properties of synthetic, natural and natural-derived compounds through the modulation of HDAC6-related pathways.