The microbiome in chronic kidney disease patients undergoing hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis

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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an imbalanced human microbiome due not only to CKD-associated factors such as uremia, increased inflammation and immunosuppression, but also to pharmacological therapies and dietary restrictions. End-stage renal disease patients require renal replacement therapies commonly in the form of hemodialysis (HD) or peritoneal dialysis (PD). HD implies the existence of a vascular access, such as an arteriovenous fistula/graft or a venous catheter, whereas PD implies a long-term peritoneal catheter and the constant inflow of peritoneal dialysate. Also, dietary adaptations are mandatory in both therapies. This revision explores the impact of HD or PD therapies on human microbiome.HD and PD appear to be associated with different changes in the gut microbiome, for example a decrease in Proteobacteria relative abundance in HD patients and increase in PD patients. Both therapies may also have an impact on the human microbiome beyond the gut, leading to increased relative abundance of specific bacteria in the blood microbiome of HD patients and increased relative abundance of other bacteria in the peritoneal microbiome of PD patients. HD and PD catheter biofilms may also play an important role in the changes observed in these microbiomes.A more interdisciplinary approach is needed to further clarify the role of microbial groups other than bacteria in all body habitats to allow the complete understanding of the impact of HD or PD on the microbiome of CKD patients. Moreover, strategies that promote a healthy balance of the human microbiome on these patients should be explored.Graphical abstract

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