Gut microbiota and probiotics intervention: A potential therapeutic target for management of cardiometabolic disorders and chronic kidney disease?

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The gut microbiota plays an important role in host metabolism and its dysregulation have been related to cardiometabolic disorders (CMD), such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), dyslipidemia and arterial hypertension, as well as to chronic kidney diseases (CKD). The implication of the gut microbiota on systemic disorders has been associated with changes in its composition (dysbiosis) as a result of the oxidative unbalance in the body. This alteration may be the result of the adoption of unhealthy lifestyle behavior, including lack of physical activity and fat- or sugar-rich diets, which are largely associated with increased incidence of CMD and CKD. In last years, a number of clinical trials and experimental studies have demonstrated that probiotics can modulate the host metabolism, resulting in amelioration of systemic disease phenotypes by the improvement of dyslipidemia, glycemic profile and blood pressure or CKD parameters. The beneficial effects of probiotics consumption have been associated with their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and gut-modulating properties. Despite of some mechanistic evidence, these effects are not totally elucidated. The present review summarizes and clarifies the effects of probiotics administration on CMD and CKD using combined evidence from clinical and experimental studies. Considering that the microbiota dysregulation has been associated with inflammation and oxidative stress and consequently with CMD and CKD, supplementation with probiotics is discussed as a strategy for management of CMD and CKD.Graphical abstract

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