Gut microbiota in kidney disease and hypertension

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The human gut microbiota is being composed of more than one hundred trillion microbial cells, including aerobic and anaerobic species as well as gram-positive and negative species. Animal based evidence suggests that the change of normal gut microbiota is responsible for several clinical implications including blood pressure increase and kidney function reduction. Trimethylamine-N-Oxide, short-chain fatty acids and inflammatory factors are originated from the gut microbes and may induce changes in arteries, kidneys and blood pressure. Prebiotics and probiotics change the gut microbiota and may reduce high blood pressure and ameliorate chronic kidney disease suggesting a new treatment target in patients for the initial stages of hypertension concomitant with other life style changes such as increased physical exercise and weight reduction to reduce cardiovascular disease complications.Graphical abstract

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