Identification of certainPanaxspecies to be potential substitutes forPanax notoginsengin hemostatic treatments

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Panax notoginseng (Burkill) F. H. Chen ex C. H. Chow (P. notoginseng) is a highly valued Chinese materia medica having a hemostatic effect and mainly used for the treatment of trauma and ischemic cardiovascular diseases. Stringent growth requirements, weak resistance to insect pests and plant diseases, arsenic contamination and continuous cropping constitute hurdles to further increases in the agricultural production of P. notoginseng. This review focuses on the traditional uses (based on traditional Chinese medicine theory), major chemical components, biological activities, pharmacological properties, geographical distributions and historical development of taxonomy of P. notoginseng and its related species in Panax genus, including Panax japonicus C. A. Meyer (P. japonicus), Panax japonicus C. A. Meyer var. major (Burkill) C. Y. Wu et K. M. Feng (P. japonicus var. major) and Panax japonicus C. A. Meyer var. bipinnatifidus (Seem.) C. Y. Wu et K. M. Feng (P. japonicus var. bipinnatifidus) are reviewed. This review sheds light on the origin herbs of Zhujieshen (ZJS) and Zhuzishen (ZZS), e.g., P. japonicas var japonicas, P. japonicus var. major and P. japonicus var. bipinnatifidus could be used as a substitute for P. notoginseng as hemostatic herbs.

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