The transient receptor potential (TRP) channel superfamily consists of 28 mammalian cation channels and is expressed in almost every tissue, including the heart and vasculature; most TRP channels are permeable to Ca2+ and are prime molecular candidates for store-operated channels (SOCs), receptor-operated channels (ROCs), ligand-gated channels (LGCs) and stretch-activated channels (SACs). As these channels act as multifunctional cellular sensors and are involved in several fundamental cell functions such as contraction, proliferation and cell death, investigation of their roles in human disease is very important. This review presents an overview of current knowledge about the pathological role of TRP channels in cardiovascular diseases and highlights some TRP channels for which a role in the diseases can be anticipated. Evidences suggest that up-regulation of TRPC channels is involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure; TRPM4 participates in some features of cardiac arrhythmias; increased expression of TRPC channels is associated with vascular remodeling and pulmonary hypertension; reduced expression or activity of TRPV4 impairs endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation; TRPC3/C4 and TRPM2 act as endothelial redox sensors; and TRPC1, -C4, -C6, -V4, and -M2, have been implicated in endothelial barrier dysfunction. Ultimately, TRP channels will become important novel pharmacological targets for the treatment of human cardiovascular diseases.