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Cellular responses are highly influenced by biochemical and biomechanical interactions with the extracellular matrix (ECM). Due to the impact of ECM architecture on cellular responses, significant research has been dedicated towards developing biomaterials that mimic the physiological environment for design of improved medical devices and tissue engineering scaffolds. Surface topographies with microscale and nanoscale features have demonstrated an effect on numerous cellular responses, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, gene expression, protein production, and differentiation; however, relationships between biological responses and surface topographies are difficult to establish due to differences in cell types and biomaterial surface properties. Therefore, it is important to optimize implant surface feature characteristics to elicit desirable biological responses for specific applications. The goal of this work was to review studies investigating the effects of microstructured and nanostructured biomaterials on in vitro biological responses through fabrication of microscale and nanoscale surface topographies, physico-chemical characterization of material surface properties, investigation of protein adsorption dynamics, and evaluation of cellular responses in specific biomedical applications.