Pet dogs are becoming increasingly recognized as a population with the potential to inform medical research through their treatment for a variety of maladies by veterinary health professionals. This is the basis of the One Health initiative, supporting the idea of collaboration between human and animal health researchers and clinicians to study spontaneous disease processes and treatment in animals to inform human health. Cancer is a major health burden in pet dogs, accounting for approximately 30% of deaths across breeds. As such, pet dogs with cancer are becoming increasingly recognized as a resource for studying the pharmacology and therapeutic potential of anticancer drugs and therapies under development. This was recently highlighted by a National Academy of Medicine Workshop on Comparative Oncology that took place in mid-2015 (http://www.nap.edu/21830). One component of cancer burden in dogs is their significantly higher incidence of sarcomas as compared to humans. This increased incidence led to canine osteosarcoma being an important component in the development of surgical approaches for osteosarcoma in children. Included in this review of sarcomas in dogs is a description of the incidence, pathology, molecular characteristics and previous translational therapeutic studies associated with these tumors. An understanding of the patho-physiological and molecular characteristics of these naturally occurring canine sarcomas holds great promise for effective incorporation into drug development schemas, for evaluation of target modulation or other pharmacodynamic measures associated with therapeutic response. These data could serve to supplement other preclinical data and bolster clinical investigations in tumor types for which there is a paucity of human patients for clinical trials.