Tools and drugs for uracil nucleotide-activated P2Y receptors

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Abstract

P2Y receptors (P2YRs) are a family of G protein-coupled receptors activated by extracellular nucleotides. Physiological P2YR agonists include purine and pyrimidine nucleoside di- and triphosphates, such as ATP, ADP, UTP, UDP, nucleotide sugars, and dinucleotides. Eight subtypes exist, P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6, P2Y11, P2Y12, P2Y13, and P2Y14, which represent current or potential future drug targets. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of ligands for the subgroup of the P2YR family that is activated by uracil nucleotides: P2Y2 (UTP, also ATP and dinucleotides), P2Y4 (UTP), P2Y6 (UDP), and P2Y14 (UDP, UDP-glucose, UDP-galactose). The physiological agonists are metabolically unstable due to their fast hydrolysis by ectonucleotidases. A number of agonists with increased potency, subtype-selectivity and/or enzymatic stability have been developed in recent years. Useful P2Y2R agonists include MRS2698 (6-01, highly selective) and PSB-1114 (6-05, increased metabolic stability). A potent and selective P2Y2R antagonist is AR-C118925 (10-01). For studies of the P2Y4R, MRS4062 (3-15) may be used as a selective agonist, while PSB-16133 (10-06) is a selective antagonist. Several potent P2Y6R agonists have been developed including 5-methoxyuridine 5′-O-((Rp)α-boranodiphosphate) (6-12), PSB-0474 (3-11), and MRS2693 (3-26). The isocyanate MRS2578 (10-08) is used as a selective P2Y6R antagonist, although its reactivity and low water-solubility are limiting. With MRS2905 (6-08), a potent and metabolically stable P2Y14R agonist is available, while PPTN (10-14) represents a potent and selective P2Y14R antagonist. The radioligand [3H]UDP can be used to label P2Y14Rs. In addition, several fluorescent probes have been developed. Uracil nucleotide-activated P2YRs show great potential as drug targets, especially in inflammation, cancer, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.

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