Regulation of prostate cancer by hormone-responsive G protein-coupled receptors

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Regulation of prostate cancer by androgen and androgen receptor (AR), and blockade of AR signaling by AR antagonists and steroidogenic enzyme inhibitors have been extensively studied. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a family of membrane receptors that regulate almost all physiological processes. Nearly 40% of FDA-approved drugs in the market target GPCRs. A variety of GPCRs that mediate reproductive function have been demonstrated to be involved in the regulation of prostate cancer. These GPCRs include gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor, luteinizing hormone receptor, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, relaxin receptor, ghrelin receptor, and kisspeptin receptor. We highlight here GPCR regulation of prostate cancer by these GPCRs. Further therapeutic approaches targeting these GPCRs for the treatment of prostate cancer are summarized.

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