Neuropeptide S (NPS) and its receptor were recently discovered in the central nervous system. In rodents, NPS promotes hyperlocomotion, wakefulness, anxiolysis, anorexia, and analgesia and enhances memory when injected intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.). Herein, NPS at different doses (0.01, 0.1 and 1 nmol) was i.c.v. administered in mice challenged with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ; 60 mg/kg) repeatedly injected. Aiming to assess behavioral alterations and oxidative damage to macromolecules in the brain, NPS was injected 5 min prior to the last dose of PTZ. The administration of NPS only at 1 nmol increased the duration of seizures evoked by PTZ, without modifying frequency and latency of seizures. Biochemical analysis revealed that NPS attenuated PTZ-induced oxidative damage to proteins and lipids in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. In contrast, the administration of NPS to PTZ-treated mice increased DNA damage in the hippocampus, but not cerebral cortex. In conclusion, this is the first evidence of the potential proconvulsive effects of NPS in mice. The protective effects of NPS against lipid and protein oxidative damage in the mouse hippocampus and cerebral cortex evoked by PTZ-induced seizures are quite unexpected. The present findings were discussed analyzing the paradoxical effects of NPS: facilitation of convulsive behavior and protection against oxidative damage to lipids and proteins.Highlights
▸ The effect of the NPS on PTZ-induced seizures was tested. ▸ The highest dose of NPS increased the duration of seizures. ▸ The NPS protected PTZ-induced oxidative damage on proteins and lipids. ▸ NPS increased PTZ-induced DNA damage in the hippocampus.