Antiepileptic drugs prevent changes in adenosine deamination during acute seizure episodes in adult zebrafish

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Abstract

Adenosine is an endogenous modulator of brain functions, which presents anticonvulsant properties. In addition, its levels can be increased during neural injury. The modulation of extracellular adenosine levels by ectonucleotidase and adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities may represent a key mechanism in the control of epileptogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute seizure episodes and antiepileptic drug (AED) treatments on ectonucleotidases and ADA activities in adult zebrafish brain. Our data have demonstrated that pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures did not alter ATP, ADP, and AMP hydrolysis in brain membrane fractions. However, there was a significant increase on ecto-ADA and soluble ADA activities in PTZ-treated animals immediately after a clonus-like convulsion and loss of posture, which are typical behavioral changes observed in Stage 3. Furthermore, our results have demonstrated that AED pretreatments prevented the stimulatory effect promoted by PTZ exposure on ADA activities. The PTZ and AED treatments did not promote alterations on ADA gene expression. Interestingly, when exposed to PTZ, animals pretreated with AEDs showed longer latency to reach the clonus-like seizure status, which is an effect that matches the suppression of the increase of ADA activity promoted by the AEDs. These data suggest that the adenosine deamination could be involved in the control of seizure development in zebrafish and may be modulated by AED treatments.

Highlights

▸ PTZ treatment did not alter ectonucleotidases in zebrafish brain membranes. ▸ PTZ treatment increased ADA activities in zebrafish brain membranes. ▸ Antiepileptic drugs prevented the increase on ADA activities promoted by PTZ. ▸ PTZ and antiepileptic drugs did not promote alterations on ADA gene expression. ▸ Antiepileptic drugs pretreatments increased the onset of clonus-like convulsions.

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