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A prospective economic analysis of lenograstim and placebo was performed as part of a randomised double-blind trial in 162 patients receiving chemotherapy for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The primary clinical end-point was the percentage of patients experiencing ≥ 1 documented infection in each treatment group. The cost of hospitalisation and the cost of medical services used were the primary economic end-points. Economic analysis was based on the French Hospital perspective.Over the 56-day study period, patients in the placebo group received more days of inpatient intravenous (8.9 vs 5.3 days; p < 0.01) and oral (5.3 vs 4.2 days) antibiotic therapy than those in the lenograstim group. This difference was due to a higher rate of documented infection in the placebo group. Patients treated with placebo also spent more days in hospital for reasons other than administration of chemotherapy (18.5 vs 14.4; p < 0.05). The number of days of chemotherapy was significantly greater in the lenograstim group than in the placebo group (19.4 vs 17.5; p < 0.001) because of shorter delays between chemotherapy cycles in the lenograstim group.The use of lenograstim to prevent chemotherapy-induced neutropenia in patients with NHL was associated with a reduction in total direct medical costs (excluding the cost of lenograstim) of FF7297 as a result of reduced patient morbidity. Furthermore, the higher rate of completion of chemotherapy in the lenograstim group may lead to better long term survival; this observation deserves further clinical investigation.