Until now, there has been no standardized method of performing and presenting budget impact analyses (BIAs) in Canada. Nevertheless, most drug plan managers have been requiring this economic data to inform drug reimbursement decisions. This paper describes the process used to develop the Canadian BIA Guidelines; describes the Guidelines themselves, including the model template; and compares this guidance with other guidance on BIAs. The intended audience includes those who develop, submit or use BIA models, and drug plan managers who evaluate BIA submissions.
The Patented Medicine Prices Review Board (PMPRB) initiated the development of the Canadian BIA Guidelines on behalf of the National Prescription Drug Utilisation Information System (NPDUIS). The findings and recommendations from a needs assessment with respect to BIA submissions were reviewed to inform guideline development. In addition, a literature review was performed to identify existing BIA guidance. The detailed guidance was developed on this basis, and with the input of the NPDUIS Advisory Committee, including drug plan managers from multiple provinces in Canada and a representative from the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health. A Microsoft® Excel-based interactive model template was designed to support BIA model development. Input regarding the guidelines and model template was sought from each NPDUIS Advisory Committee member to ensure compatibility with existing drug plan needs. Decisions were made by consensus through multiple rounds of review and discussion. Finally, BIA guidance in Canadian provinces and other countries were compared on the basis of multiple criteria.
The BIA guidelines consist of three major sections: Analytic Framework, Inputs and Data Sources, and Reporting Format. The Analytic Framework section contains a discussion of nine general issues surrounding BIAs (model design, analytic perspective, time horizon, target population, costing, scenarios to be compared, the characterisation of uncertainty, discounting, and validation methods). The Inputs and Data Sources section addresses methods for market size estimation, comparator selection, scenario forecasting and drug price estimation. The Reporting Format section describes methods for BIA reporting.
The new Canadian BIA Guidelines represent a significant departure from the limited guidance that was previously available from some of the provinces, because they include specific details of the methods of performing BIAs. The Canadian BIA Guidelines differ from the Principles of Good Research Practice for BIAs developed by the International Society for Pharmacoeconomic and Outcomes Research (ISPOR), which provide more general guidance.
The Canadian BIA Guidelines and template build upon existing guidance to address the specific requirements of each of the participating drug plans in Canada. Both have been endorsed by the NPDUIS Steering Committee and the PMPRB for the standardization of BIA submissions.