Cost Effectiveness of Sucroferric Oxyhydroxide Compared with Sevelamer Carbonate in the Treatment of Hyperphosphataemia in Patients Receiving Dialysis, from the Perspective of the National Health Service in Scotland

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Abstract

Background

Hyperphosphataemia is common and harmful in patients receiving dialysis. Treatment options include noncalcium-based phosphate binders such as sevelamer carbonate (SC) and sucroferric oxyhydroxide (PA21).

Objective

The aim of this study was to determine the health economic impact of PA21-based strategies compared with SC-based strategies, from the perspective of the Scottish National Health Service (NHS).

Methods

A Markov model was constructed based on data from a randomised clinical trial comparing PA21 and SC. Model input parameters were derived from published literature, national statistics and unpublished sources. Costs (price year 2012) and effects were discounted at 3.5 %. Analysis with a lifelong time horizon yielded the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), expressed as cost or savings per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained or forgone. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to explore uncertainties around assumptions and model input parameters.

Results

In the base-case analysis, phosphorus reductions for PA21 and SC were 1.93 and 1.95 mg/dL. Average undiscounted survival was estimated to be 7.61 years per patient in both strategies. PA21 patients accrued less QALYs (2.826) than SC patients (2.835), partially due to differential occurrence of side effects. Total costs were £13,119 and £14,728 for PA21 and SC, respectively (difference per patient of £1609). By using PA21 versus SC, one would save £174,999 (or £123,463 when including dialysis and transplantation costs) for one QALY forgone. A scenario modelling the nonsignificant reduction in mortality (relative risk 0.714) observed in the trial yielded an ICER for PA21 of £22,621 per QALY gained. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis of the base-case, PA21 was dominant in 11 %, and at least cost-effective in 53 %, of iterations, using a threshold of £20,000 per QALY gained.

Conclusions

The use of PA21 versus SC in hyperphosphataemic patients being intolerant of calcium-based phosphate binders may be cost saving and yields only very limited disadvantages in terms of quality-adjusted survival. PA21 appears to be cost-effective from the perspective of the Scottish NHS.

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