Indications for endophlebectomy and/or arteriovenous fistula after stenting

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Abstract

Endovenous recanalization with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting in post-thrombotic syndrome patients with iliocaval obstruction is a treatment modality quickly gaining popularity. Studies show good patency and clinical success rates. If the obstruction extends distally, below the inguinal ligament, stenting remains controversial. Without adequate inflow, the patency of stented iliocaval segments drops dramatically. This suggests that treatment of diseased common femoral, femoral and profunda femoral veins is required to ensure adequate inflow. Endophlebectomy, the removal of synechiae and septae from the common femoral vein, is a viable option in these cases. Another option, which can be done concurrently with the endophlebectomy, is the creation of an arteriovenous fistula. Selecting patients for these interventions however remains difficult, as precise preoperative prediction of inflow into the stented segments is difficult. In this paper we describe our experience in using duplex ultrasonography, magnetic resonance venography and conventional venography to assess the patency of the inflow trajectory. We believe this approach is essential in dealing with cases of complex post-thrombotic disease extending below the inguinal ligament. There is a great need to establish criteria to accurately assess pre- and postinterventional flow through treated vein segments.

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