Treatment of incompetent perforators in recurrent venous insufficiency with adhesive embolization and sclerotherapy

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Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the feasibility, efficiency and safety of an outpatient combined cyanoacrylate adhesion–sodium tetradecyl sulphate sclerotherapy for treatment of patients with symptoms of persistent or recurrent lower limb venous insufficiency secondary to incompetent perforators.

Methods

Eighty-three limbs of 69 patients with symptoms of persistent or recurrent lower limb venous insufficiency secondary to incompetent perforators were treated with cyanoacrylate embolization of incompetent perforators and sclerotherapy of dilated collateral veins (surface branch varicose veins). Technical success, procedural pain, perforator occlusion, venous occlusion, clinical improvement and ulcer healing were assessed. Follow-up was done three- and six-month post-procedure.

Results

Procedure could be successfully performed in all patients. One hundred and ninety-one perforators were treated in total. Perforator and varicose veins occlusion rate was 100%. Deep venous extension of cyanoacrylate occurred in four (4.8%) patients, with no adverse clinical outcome. Venous clinical severity score improved from a baseline of 8.18 ± 3.60 to 4.30 ± 2.48 on three-month follow-up and 2.42 ± 1.52 on six-month follow-up (p < 0.0001). All ulcers showed complete healing within three months. Significant prolonged thrombophlebitis occurred in 38.5% of limbs.

Conclusion

Combined cyanoacrylate adhesion and setrol sclerotherapy is technically easy, has a lot of advantages including being an outpatient procedure and highly efficacious but with a guarded safety profile.

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