Anatomical abnormalities of the pelvic venous system and their implications for endovascular management of pelvic venous reflux

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BackgroundPelvic venous reflux is often treated with pelvic vein embolisation; however, atypical pelvic venous anatomy may provide therapeutic challenges.MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed seven patient files and reported symptoms, diagnostic imaging, aberrant anatomy and means by which the interventional radiologist successfully completed the procedure. Any follow-up data were included if available.ResultsFour anatomical abnormalities were found: internal iliac veins draining into the contralateral common iliac vein, duplicated inferior vena cava, reverse-angle renal veins with atypical left ovarian vein drainage and direct drainage of the internal iliac vein to the inferior vena cava. All patients were successfully treated with pelvic vein embolisation.ConclusionAbnormal embryologic development may cause variable pelvic venous anatomy. Knowledge of this will enable interventional radiologists to successfully treat such patients.

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