Sulfur (S) is an essential nutrient element required in a large quantity by mustard. S regulates photosynthesis and plant growth through improving nitrogen (N) acquisition. Mustard cultivars Alankar, Varuna, Pusa Jai Kisan, and SS2 differing in S accumulation capacity calculated as sulfate transport index (STI) were tested for ATP-sulfurylase activity, S and N accumulation, photosynthesis, and shoot dry mass (DM) at 30 and 60 d after sowing (DAS). The activity of ATP-sulfurylase, shoot N content, net photosynthetic rate (PN), leaf area, and shoot DM of the cultivars were in the order: Pusa Jai Kisan>Alankar>Varuna>SS2. ATP-sulfurylase activity was strongly and positively correlated with PN and shoot DM in all the cultivars. Hence ATP-sulfurylase activity may be used as a physiological trait for augmenting photosynthesis and shoot DM.