Increased oxidative stress with high free radical generation has been described previously in animal models of hyperthyroidism. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of caffeic acid phenylethyl ester (CAPE) on oxidative damage in rats with experimentally induced hyperthyroidism. The study was conducted on 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats. The experimental animals were divided into four groups (control, CAPE alone, hyperthyroidism, and hyperthyroidism + CAPE). Hyperthyroidism was induced by intraperitoneal administration of 0.3 mg/kg/day L-thyroxine for 4 weeks. CAPE (10 μg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally for 4 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, blood samples and various organs (liver, heart and brain) of rats were taken for the determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione, vitamin C and superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels and concentrations of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and thyroxine-stimulating hormone (TSH). Our results indicate that TBARS, oxidized glutathione, SOD levels and concentrations of T3 and T4 were higher in plasma and tissues of the hyperthyroid group compared to controls. Vitamin C, GSH and TSH levels were decreased significantly in the hyperthyroid group when compared to the control group. CAPE treatment decreased the elevated TBARS, SOD, T3 and T4 levels and increased the lowered GSH, vitamin C and TSH levels to control levels in rats with hyperthyroidism. In conclusion, our results indicate that CAPE is beneficial as a protective agent against oxidative stress induced by hyperthyroidism in rats. The protection is probably due to multiple mechanisms involving free radical scavenger properties, attenuating lipid peroxidation and increasing the antioxidant status.