Etoposide (VP-16), a topoisomerase II inhibitor, is an effective anti-cancer drug used for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound that has been proved to have anti-cancer activity. XRCC1 is an important scaffold protein involved in base excision repair that is regulated by ERK1/2 and AKT signals and plays an important role in the development of lung cancer. However, the role of ERK1/2 and AKT-mediated XRCC1 expression in etoposide treatment alone or combined with resveratrol-induced cytotoxicity in NSCLC cells has not been identified. In this study, etoposide treatment increased XRCC1 mRNA and protein expression through AKT and ERK1/2 activation in two NSCLC cells, H1703 and H1975. Knockdown of XRCC1 in NSCLC cells by transfection of XRCC1 siRNA or inactivation of ERK1/2 and AKT resulted in enhancing cytotoxicity and cell growth inhibition induced by etoposide. Resveratrol inhibited the expression of XRCC1 and enhanced the etoposide-induced cell death and anti-proliferation effect in NSCLC cells. Furthermore, transfection with constitutive active MKK1 or AKT vectors could rescue the XRCC1 protein level and also the cell survival suppressed by co-treatment with etoposide and resveratrol. These findings suggested that down-regulation of XRCC1 expression by resveratrol can enhance the chemosensitivity of etoposide in NSCLC cells.