Epilepsy is one of the most common serious disorders of the brain. Several experimental studies have reported neuroprotective and antioxidant activity of certain natural products like curcumin, an active ingredient of turmeric. The present study was designed to explore the effect of acute administration of curcumin at doses 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, orally (p.o.) and its chronic (× 21 days) administration in 100 mg/kg, p.o. on increasing current electroshock (ICES) test, elevated plus maze and actophotometer in mice. Curcumin in a dose of 100 mg/kg significantly increased the seizure threshold in ICES test on both acute and chronic administration. The same dose of 100 mg/kg on acute administration showed anxiogenic effect on elevated plus maze and actophotometer test. However, this anxiogenic effect of curcumin disappeared on chronic administration. These results suggest that curcumin appears to possess anticonvulsant activity in mice. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.